文法形容詞子句 (8) [ 關係副詞 when ]

 

之前形容詞子句只提到關係代名詞,尚未提到關係副詞。如同關係代名詞,關係副詞也是形容或修飾一個名詞。以關係副詞引導出來的形容詞子句,也稱為關係子句,它常用到的關係副詞如下:

when    – 用來修飾時間。

where    – 用來修飾地方。

why      – 用來修飾原因。

how       用來修飾方式或方法。

 

各類關係副詞引導出來的形容詞子句:

1)   when的例句

      -     I never forget the day when I first met my wife.

            = I never forget the day on which I first met my wife.

            (when = on which)

            = I never forget the day that I first met my wife. (that取代when)

            =  I never forget the day I first met my wife. (省略when)

            主要子句:      I never forget the day  

            形容詞子句:   when I first met my wife    

            先行詞:          the day

            when是形容詞子句的時間關係副詞

            = I never forget when I first met my wife. (省略the day,成為名詞子句)

 

      -     Well buy a big birthday cake on my moms birthday when all relatives and friends get together at my parents house.

            Well buy a big birthday cake on my moms birthday all relatives and friends get together at my parents house. ( X ) (不能省略when)

            主要子句:      well buy a big birthday cake on my moms birthday

            形容詞子句: when all relatives and friends get together at my

                                       parents house

            先行詞:          birthday

            when是形容詞子句的時間關係副詞

 

      -    During the summer when I stayed in London, I had the chance to visit many ancient castles. (when所引導的子句是形容詞子句,不會是詞子句,因為when前面的先行詞與時間有關。)

            = During the summer I stayed in London, I had the chance to visit many ancient castles. (when所引導的子句是形容詞子句,因為省略when)

            主要子句:      I had the chance to visit many ancient castles

            形容詞子句:   when I stayed in London

            先行詞:          the summer

            when是形容詞子句的時間關係副詞

 

      -    The exact time when Mr. Lin will arrive at home is critical to this party. (when所引導的子句是形容詞子句)

            = The exact time about when Mr. Lin will arrive at home is critical to this party. (這時when所引導的子句是名詞子句,因為when前面沒有先行詞,它所引導的子句是about的受詞。)

            = The exact time Mr. Lin will arrive at home is critical to this party.

            (省略when)

            主要子句:      the exact time is critical to this party  

            形容詞子句:   when Mr. Lin will arrive at home    

            先行詞:          the exact time

            when是形容詞子句的時間關係副詞

            整句的意思是:        林先生確實到家的時間對這宴會是很要緊的。

 

      -     I forget the day when I should give you a reply. (形容詞子句)

            = I forgot the day on which I should give you a reply.

            (when = on which)

            = I forgot the dayI should give you a reply. (省略when)

            = I forgot the day that I should give you a reply. (that取代when)

            主要子句:      I forgot the day.

            形容詞子句:   when I should give you a reply

          先行詞:          the day

            when是形容詞子句的時間關係副詞

            = I forgot when I should give you a reply. (名詞子句)

 

注意:
1)   請特別留意省略與取代的例子。

2)   that可以取代when

 

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